Acute respiratory distress syndrome in children. What’s new?

V.I. Snisar


Respiratory distress syndrome in children is one of the most severe pathologies in the pediatric intensive care unit. In pediatric practice, there were no specific recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of children of diffe­rent ages. There was no specific definition for pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In 2015, experts from the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference published the specific definition of ARDS in children, and given the priority areas for future research. There were issued up to 151 recommendations, which concerned sections related to pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome: definition, prevalence and epidemiology; pathophysiology, severity and co-morbidity; respiratory support; pulmonary, supplementary and non-pulmonary therapy; monitoring; non-invasive respiratory support and ventilation; extracorporeal oxygenation; morbidity and long-term outcome. This article presents the main recommendations designed and specified for a number of positions, which have features only for pediatric ARDS. Moreover, several differences were determined in acute respiratory distress syndrome between adults and children, in both diagnosis and treatment. To evaluate the degree of hypoxemia and to determine the severity of pediatric ARDS, we have used the oxygenation index: OI = FIO2 × mean airway pressure (Paw) × 100 / PaO2, and the oxygen saturation index: OSI = FIO2 × Paw × 100 / SpO2 [11, 12]. All this facilities will optimize and improve ARDS therapy in children and reduce the rate of mortality from this disease in future.


acute respiratory distress syndrome; children


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