Basic approaches and principles of controlled infusion therapy in patients with urgent surgical abdominal pathology

O.V. Kravets, E.N. Klygunenko


Over the past fifteen years, the number of urgent laparotomy is 36–58 % and is characterized by a mortality of 30–80 %. One of the main causes of this is hypovolemia, which causes hemodynamic disorders, tissue hypoxia and the development of multiple organ failure. The main method of its treatment is to fill the circulating blood volume deficiency, where the first choice drugs are crystalloids. It is easy to predict the effects of crystalloid solutions using the physico-chemical model of Stewart’s acid-alkaline equilibrium. Physiologically, all substances in the body are in a dissolved state. Enhancement or weakening of the dissociation of biological aqueous solutions regulate the dependent (H+, HCO3–) and independent (partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), strong ion difference (SID), total weak acid concentration (Atot)) variables. The regulation of the body’s aqueous media is subject to the three laws of electroneutrality, the equilibrium of dissociation and mass conservation. Based on the Stewart model, electrolyte disturbances can lead to a change in SID and Atot, which forms metabolic acidosis and alkalosis. The composition of cations in a balanced crystalloid solution should correspond to their physiological concentration in the plasma. In this case, the preservation of the physiological concentration of such a strong anion as Cl– in a crystalloid solution is possible only with an increase in the concentration of organic ions. Organic ions are lactate (lactic acid); acetate (acetic acid); malate (malic acid); gluconate (glucuronic acid); citrate (citric acid).These organic ions are moderately strong organic acids and belong to strong electrolytes. In the literature, organic ions are called donors of reserve alkalinity HCO3–. To date, evidence-based studies do not recommend the use of lactate because of: an increase in oxygen consumption during metabolism in the liver, which aggravates tissue hypoxia in conditions of initial oxygen deficiency; threat of intestinal cerebral edema and coagulopathy with excessive concentration of lactate; contraindications to use in shock, accompanied by lactic acidosis and liver failure. Acetate: rapidly stabilizes acid-alkaline disorders due to its rapid metabolism; can be used for violations of the liver; provides minimum oxygen consumption in the process of correction of metabolic acidosis; is an antihypoxant (representing the energy substrate of the Krebs cycle). Malate — can be used for violations of the liver; an antihypoxant (represen­ting the energy substrate of the Krebs cycle); has a detoxification and antioxidant effect. For safe clinical use of crystalloid solutions in patients with urgent abdominal cavity pathology, it is necessary to know: intravenous infusion of solutions causes a “mixing phenomenon” of two different fluids — infusion solution and plasma, which differ from each other in the values of SID and Atot. The main characteristic of the infusion solution is its SIDinf. Before starting the infusion, it is necessary to clearly understand the SID and Atot of the solution used. The total infusion volume changes the SID and Atot of the plasma, with the subsequent effect on the plasma pH. During the infusion therapy, the plasma values of SID and Atot will tend to subjugate SIDinf and Atot of the injected fluid. Crystalloid solutions do not contain albumins or phosphates, therefore, Atot of any crystalloid solution is 0. The characteristics of a balanced crystalloid solution are: SIDinf = 24 mEqL–1; compliance of the electrolyte content with their plasma concentration; the presence in the composition of organic ions, preventing an increase in the concentration of Cl– in the infusion solution and being donors of reserve alkalinity. According to the criteria for the ba­lance of crystalloid solutions, we distinguish: unbalanced crystalloid solutions (0.9% NaCl solution); partially balanced crystalloid solutions (Ringer’s lactate and Hartmann’s solutions); fully balanced solutions (plasmalyte, plasmalyte A, sterofundin, sterofundin ISO). The use of unbalanced solutions (0.9% NaCl solution) is dangerous due to the development of hyperchloremic acidosis. The use of partially balanced crystalloid solutions (Ringer’s lactate and Hartmann’s solutions) can form or aggravate lactate acidosis in conditions of tissue hypoxia and/or liver dysfunction. Infusion of balanced solutions — plasmalyte, plasmalyte A, sterofundin allows you to quickly adjust metabolic acidosis, but requires mandatory laboratory monitoring of the parameters of acid-base balance because of the threat of metabolic alkalosis. Introduction of a balanced solution sterofundin ISO has the highest safety profile, it enables to clinically apply the solution “blindly”.


infusion therapy; crystalloid solutions; acid-base balance; Stewart theory


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