Electromyographic diagnosis of tongue movement disorders of neurogenic origin in patients with occlusion pathology
Background. Tongue movement disorders occurred in the practice of neurologists is the consequence of a large number of various pathologies. The most common diseases that may be accompanied by lingual movement disorders are acute cerebrovascular disorders and their long-term consequences. The issue of dentist’s participation in the interdisciplinary approach to the diagnosis of tongue movement disorders remains relevant. A widespread method to diagnose muscle function disorders is surface electromyography. The purpose of this study was to improve the methods of electromyographic diagnosis of tongue movement disorders in patients with long-term consequences of acute cerebrovascular accident combined with occlusive defects. Materials and methods. According to our objective, we carried out a cross-sectional case-control study. The clinical study group included 87 patients. The control group consisted of 40 people. The method for clinical examination of patients included the collection of patients’ complaints, careful collection of anamnesis and disease data, neurological examination in the hospital at the admission for planned treatment for cerebrovascular disease consequences. The dental examination included external and oral analysis to detect defects in the dentition and to determine the severity of the carious process. Electromyographic examination of the tongue muscles was carried out using the device developed by us for global surface electromyography. Results. When studying the interference curve in patients of the main group, several types of patterns characteristic of neurological lesions of the central or peripheral motor neuron were identified. The preservation of the normal form of contour line with visually increased amplitude and single potential of fasciculations were characteristic of the pyramidal pattern of the rest period. The period of arbitrary maximum stress is characterized by preserving the appearance of normal spindle curve with visual decrease in the maximum amplitude. The affection of the peripheral motor neuron is characterized by the “tenuous” curve with increasing amplitude of arbitrary maximum stress that corresponds to the processes of reinnervation. After comparing the parameters of patients in the clinical group with that of controls, we determined statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between the quantitative indices of the interference curve by the maximum and the average amplitude of rest and stress periods, as well as by the average frequency of the stress period. Conclusions. High rates of caries severity and its complications in neurological patients indicate the possibility of involving dental practitioners for the diagnosis and rehabilitation of such patients. Analysis of the obtained data indicates the feasibility of using the proposed method of electromyography to improve the algorithms for the diagnosis of neurological diseases.
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