The role of the military medical service in the formation of chemical safety in Ukraine: postgraduate training of military toxicologists
Background. The rapid development of the industry of chemical, radiation-nuclear technologies and the emergence of the chemical and radiation environment surrounding virtually all spheres of the human activity causes urgent need to solve complex problems of medical supply of chemical and radiation safety in Ukraine. There is an increase in the role of vocational training of toxicologists according to the needs of the health care system of Ukraine in providing toxicological assistance to both the civilian population and individual special medical units providing medical care under conditions of terrorist threats and emergencies and accompanied by the action of chemical, radiation and biological agents. The purpose of the study was to analyze the current system of chemical safety in the country in terms of existing external and internal chemical threats and to develop a modern model of professional training in the field of toxicology. Material and methods. The recommendations of international organizations on the formation of an effective system of chemical safety, in particular training of specialists in the field of medical toxicology for the last 20 years (Food and Agriculture Organization, International Labor Organization, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, United Nations Institute for Training and Research, World Health Organization), were studied. The analysis of the periodical scientific sources of the Commonwealth of Independent States, Europe, the USA, Japan and other countries on these issues was carried out. Results. In Ukraine, the training system of toxicologists in the health care system has not been established. For example, there are no specialized departments in institutions of postgraduate education. In the institutions of higher education, the number of training hours on toxicology has been reduced from 2 weeks to 3–5 hours. The necessity to provide the appropriate level of training of toxicologists for the needs of the health care system in Ukraine determined in 2017 the development and implementation of the educational and scientific training program for masters at the premises of the department of military toxicology, radiology and medical protection of the Ukrainian Military Medical Academy was stipulated (master’s) level of higher education in the field of toxicology. This program of specialization in toxicology developed according to EUROTOX standards is relevant not only for medical officers and officials of state structures responsible for medical support of special forces for combating chemical (biological) terrorism and specialists in the field of medical devices, but also for emergency care experts, and the heads of health care institutions of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine. The main sections of the programs for postgraduate education of toxicologists at training courses in many countries of the world are: general principles of medical toxicology (types and circumstances of poisoning, basic principles of toxicology, clinical diagnosis, general principles of treatment for poisoning, organizations and groups — participants of poison control programs); toxic effects of chemicals on the human body (systematic monitoring and evaluation of the most widespread and severe cases of poisoning and toxic substances, monitoring and evaluation of toxicants); human toxicology in the aspect of rare-earth chemical research (toxicity prognosis, statistical and epidemiological programs for evaluation of acute and chronic effects of specific substances), etc. The developed master’s program is based on the methodological principles of EUROTOX. Conclusions. Ensuring an effective system of chemical and radiation safety in Ukraine is possible under the conditions of creating a unified system of training toxicologists in the health care system of Ukraine according to EUROTOX standards. A practical step in this direction could be the creation at the premises of department of military toxicology, radiology and medical protection of the Ukrainian Military Medical Academy of an interdepartmental educational, methodological and scientific center to train toxicologists for the Armed Forces of Ukraine on the standards of North Atlantic Treaty Organization, for medical and preventive and scientific-practical institutions of Ukraine according to EUROTOX standards and receiving internationally recognized certificate of a toxicologist that will give the automatic right to enter the European register of toxicologists and increase the competitiveness of national experts.
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