DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0586.7.94.2018.150819

The accuracy of development of the professional training for toxicologists «Dual-use chemicals the potential for the creation of modern chemical weapons»

N.V. Kurdil

Abstract


Background. Recently, international regulators, in particular the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the Australian Group, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), are increa­singly focusing on dual-use chemicals, which are widely used in industry in many countries of the world, but under certain conditions, can be used as chemical weapons. Information on dual-use chemicals is open-access, constantly updated, but not adequately reflected in the postgraduate training curricula of military doctors. The purpose of the study is to confirm the rele­vance of expanding the range of knowledge on the toxicology of dual-use chemicals and to develop the thematic improvement cycle for military doctors of various specialties as a component of the gene­ral program of post-graduate training of doctors, conducted by the Department of Military Toxicology, Radiolo­gy and Medical Protection of the Ukrainian Military Medical Academy. Materials and methods. Materials of the bulletins of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), the Australian Group press releases, materials of the international conferences of the OSCE over the past 10 years on the international regulation of chemical and toxin weapons been analyzed. The components of the global chemical oversight system that can be used as components of chemical weapons been generalized. Results. Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction signed on behalf of Ukraine on January 13, 1993 in Paris, Ukraine, was ratified by Law No. 187-XIV of October 16, 1998.Today, The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons acts as an international legal framework for clarifying the provisions of the Convention. In addition, the organization carries out inspections of military-industrial facilities to ensure compliance with the requirements of the Convention by the participating countries. The Convention not only prescribes the destruction and prohibition of chemical weapons and related objects, but also sets limits on the international trade in toxic chemicals and precursors that can be used for military purposes. According to the Analytical review of the state of technogenic and natural safety in Ukraine for 2016, there are high risks in emergencies in Ukraine related to accidents with emission or hazardous release of hazardous chemicals. Potential risks are related to the operation of 711 facilities, in which more than 285 thousand tons of hazardous chemicals are stored or used in the production activity, including more than 3 thousand tons of chlorine, 183 thousand tons of ammonia and about 99 thousand tons of hazardous chemicals. Among the objects that store or use chemicals in their activities, the most potentially dangerous are: the production of explosives and the disposal of unsuitable ammunition; large-scale production of inorganic substances (mineral fertilizers, chlorine, ammonia, acids); oil and gas refineries; production of organic synthesis products; production using chlorine and ammonia; Warehouses and bases with reserves of pesticides for agriculture; main ammonia and ethylene pipelines. The foregoing makes Ukraine the subject of special attention from the international organizations dealing with issues of chemical safety and control over chemical wea­pons.It should be noted that the post-graduate trainings of military doctors focus on studying of weapons of mass destruction, in particular chemical weapons. The presentation of the educational material is based on the methodology developed during the Second World War. Traditional educational material reveals only certain aspects of chemical weapons of previous decades. At the same time, it would be advisable to reflect on contemporary aspects of chemical safety in the programs of postgraduate training of military toxicologists, in particular potential threats involving dual-use chemicals and international mechanisms for their research and regulation. Conclusions. Observing dual-use chemicals is an important aspect of the international chemical safety and security. Taking into account the scale of chemical production in Ukraine, where dual-use substances are used, and the nature of existing chemical threats, dual-use monitoring is a matter of increasing relevance. In view of the above, there is a need to revise certain sections of the training programs of post-graduate training of military toxicologists in order to acquire theoretical knowledge of dual-use chemicals and international standards for their control.


Keywords


dual-use chemicals; postgraduate trending

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