DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0586.7.94.2018.150820

Modern methods for toxicological and hygienic assessment of integrated combat equipment of militaries of the Ukrainian Armed Forces

S.A. Morgun, L.A. Uustinova, N.I. Barasyi, A.A. Yevtodiev, V.I. Saglo, Ye.V. Havrilko, N.V. Kurdil, T.S. Oboronova

Abstract


Background. Currently, the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine is working hard to improve combat equipment, which is an equal element of the military security system. The control of the safety of military uniforms or special clothing that has been exposed to the skin surface for a long time is an important safety factor for health and high combat readiness. The purpose of this study was to study the toxicological and hygienic characteristics of special clothing — summer-weight field uniform, consisting of jackets and trousers. Materials and methods. The research was conducted on 9 samples of field uniforms in accordance with the requirements of the State Sanitary Standards and “Materials and products of textile, leather and fur. Basic hygiene requirements” (the Order of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine No. 1138 dated December 29, 2012, registered in the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine No. 87/22618 dated January 9, 2013) and Methodological Recommendations for the Hygienic Assessment of Clothing and Footwear of Polymer Materials No. 66-13-5/161 dated April 17, 1986. Results. Modern military clothing should meet special requirements that would ensure that it can be effectively used for intended purposes during a certain time in a combat environment. The performance of clothes in accordance with the tasks depends on a number of factors: the conditions of clothing use, the properties of materials, the clothing design, special processing. Hygienic requirements for clothing are to protect the human body from the adverse effects of environmental factors, as well as provide normal livelihoods of the organism, creating a favorable microclimate in the space under the clothes. The criteria for safety of special clothing were studied using hygienic methods (odorimetric) and toxicological methods (study of the content of chemicals in air and water). The results of the odorimetric experiment investigated the intensity of smell of products. The studies included determination of migration levels of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, phenol, organic solvents (benzene, toluene, xylene), heavy metal ions in aqueous model environment; formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, phenol, organic solvents (benzene, toluene, xylene) into air extraction. In the preparation of water extracts no waste was determined, staining of products was stable. Water extracts were transparent, without siege, haze, no foaming. From the prototype samples, the migration of acetaldehyde, organic solvents (benzene, toluene, xylene), heavy metal ions (nickel, copper, cadmium) into water extract was not detected. From the prototypes, the migration of acetaldehyde, organic solvents (benzene, toluene, xylene, methyl acetate) into the air extract was not revealed. According to the research, 5 out of 9 samples did not meet the established medical criteria (indicators) for the suits manufactur, which, in conditions of combat use, have permanent and direct contact with the skin of a military. The concentration of formaldehyde in water extracts exceeded the maximum permissible limits. After washing the products, the migration of formaldehyde decreased and did not exceed the hygienic requirements. The use of these samples can be recommended only after the obligatory washing before application. To determine the origin of high content of formaldehyde in tissues, it is necessary to conduct additional studies of fabric of different stages of textile processing (hard fabric, dyed fabric, finite processing with apretas, etc.). Taking into account the levels of formaldehyde extraction that were obtained as a result of toxic-hygienic studies, the samples can cause skin irritating, allergic effects in case of prolonged, direct, permanent contact with human skin. Establishing the facts of detecting these effects depends on the individual sensitivity of a person and requires additional specific research. According to the results of the research, 5 out of 9 tissue samples were identified as such that can not be used as a summer-weighted field uniform because of a high level of formaldehyde migration. Conclusions. One of the most important characteristics of modern military clothing is a high level of functionality, wear resistance and especially the safety of military health. The modern methods of toxicogenic evaluation allows quickly and objectively determine the level of fabric safety by studying the content of various chemicals (benzene, toluene, xylene, heavy metal ions, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, phenol, organic solvents, etc.). The use of modern methods of toxic and hygienic research allows operatively obtain objective information on the quality of experimental samples of a special uniform for making informed decisions regarding the possibility of their acquisition and use in modern combat conditions.


Keywords


military medicine; preventive toxicology

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