DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0586.1.96.2019.158745

Maintaining muscle mass in patients of the intensive care unit: from the essence of the problem to current trends in therapy

O.Yu. Sorokina, N.V. Matolinets

Abstract


The article provides an overview of the current data on the problem of maintaining muscle mass in patients of the intensive care unit. It is known that a common problem of patients in the intensive care unit is nutritional deficiency due to metabolic stress. It is believed that skeletal muscles control metabolic processes and regulate homeostasis. Loss of muscle mass is associated with the development of complications, reduced resources for recovery from the disease and an increased risk of patient’s death. An integrated approach, including nutritional support and physical exercises aimed at increasing muscle volume and their endurance, is an important component of intensive care aimed at preventing muscle loss in critically ill patients. Body weight control, food intake stimulation, inflammation reduction can serve to preserve skeletal muscles. Proteins/amino acids administered exogenously can have a positive impact on the protein balance in the body of critically ill patients. The original L-ornithine-L-aspartate (Hepa-Merz®) is a pathogenetically justified drug to reduce the metabolic load that occurs when the body’s own proteins break down due to catabolism and impaired ammonia utilization

Keywords


review; critically ill patients; skeletal muscles; protein metabolism; intensive care

References


Association between illness severity and timing of initial enteral feeding in critically ill patients: a retrospective observational study / Hsiu-Hua Huang, Chien-Wei Hsu, Shiu-Ping Kang, Ming-Yi Liu, Sue-Joan Chang // Nutrition Journal. — 2012. — Vol. 11. — P. 30. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-30.

ESPEN Guidelines on definitions and terminology of clinical nutrition / T. Cederholm, R. Barazzoni, P. Austin, P. Ballmer, G. Biolo, S.C. Bischoff, C. Compher et al. // Clinical Nutrition. — 2017. — Vol. 36. — P. 49-64.

Jones C. Intensive care diaries and relatives’ symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder after critical illness: A pilot study / C. Jones, C. Bäckman, R.D. Griffiths // Am. J. Crit. Care. — 2012. — Vol. 21. — P. 172-176. doi: 10.4037/ajcc2012569.

Cuesta J.M. The stress response and critical illness: A review / J.M. Cuesta, M. Singer // Crit. Care Med. — 2012. — Vol. 40. — P. 3283-3289. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e31826567eb.

Callahan L.A. Hyperglycemia-induced diaphragm weakness is mediated by oxidative stress / L.A. Callahan, G.S. Supinski // Critical Care. — 2014. — 18. — R 88.

Interleukin-6-deficient mice develop hepatic inflammation and systemic insulin resistance / Matthews V.B., Allen T.L., Risis S., Chan M.H.S., Henstridge D.C., Watson N., Zaffino L.A. et al. // Diabetologia. — 2010. — Vol. 53. — P. 2431-2441.

Serum glucose levels for predicting death in patients admitted to hospital for community acquired pneumonia: prospective cohort study / Lepper P.M., Ott S., Nüesch E., von Eynatten M., Schumann C., Pletz M.W., Mealing N.M. et al. // BMJ. — 2012. — Vol. 344. — P. 3397. doi: 10.1136/bmj.e3397.

Stress-induced hyperglycemia after hip fracture and the increased risk of acute myocardial infarction in nondiabetic patients / Chen Y., Yang X., Meng K., Zeng Z., Ma B., Liu X., Qi B. et al. // Diabetes Care. — 2013. — Vol. 36, Iss. 10. — P. 3328-3332. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc13-0119

Boonen E. Cortisol metabolism in critical illness: implications for clinical care / E. Boonen, G. Van den Berghe // Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes & Obesity. — 2014. — Vol. 21, Iss. 3. — Р. 185-192.

Central nervous system inflammation induces muscle atrophy via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis / Braun T.P., Zhu X., Szumowski M., Scott G.D., Grossberg A.J., Levasseur P.R., Graham K. et al. // J. Exp. Med. — 2011. — Vol. 21, № 208 (12). — P. 2449-2463.

Bruce C.R. Cytokine regulation of skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism: effect of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha / C.R. Bruce, D.J. Dyck // Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. — 2004. — Vol. 287, № 4. — P. 16-21.

Burton D. Endocrine and metabolic response to anaesthesia and surgery / D. Burton // Continuing Education in Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain. — 2004. — Vol. 4, Iss. 5. — P. 144-147. doi: 10.1093/bjaceaccp/mkh040

Whole body protein kinetics during hypocaloric and normocaloric feeding in critically ill patients / A. Berg, O. Rooyac­kers, B.M. Bellander, J. Wernerman // Crit. Care. — 2013. — Vol. 17. — P. 158. doi: 10.1186/cc12837

Skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ: Role of [Na+]i/[K+]I-mediated excitation-transcription coupling / L.V. Kapilevicha, T.A. Kironenkoa, A.N. Zaharova, Yu.V. Kotelevtsevb, N.O. Dulinc, S.N. Orlov // Genes & Diseases. — 2015. — Vol. 2, Iss. 4. — P. 328-336. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352304215000665 — !https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gendis.2015.10.001.

How much and what type of protein should a critically ill patient receive? / Ochoa Gautier J.B., Martindale R.G., Rugeles S.J., Hurt R.T., Taylor B., Heyland D.K., McClave S.A. // Nutr. Clin. Pract. — 2017. — Vol. 32, Iss. 1. — P. 6-14. doi: 10.1177/0884533617693609

Protein requirements, morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients: fundamentals and applications / H.F. Ramos da Cunha, E.E. Moreira da Rocha, M. Hissa // Rev. Bras. Ter. Intensiva. — 2013. — Vol. 25, № 1. — P. 49-55. doi: 10.1590/S0103-507X2013000100010

Central nervous system inflammation induces muscle atrophy via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis / Braun T.P., Zhu X., Szumowski M., Scott G.D., Grossberg A.J., Levasseur P.R., Graham K. et al. // J. Exp. Med. — 2011. — Vol. 21, № 208 (12). — P. 2449-2463.

Cytokine expression and secretion by skeletal muscle cells: regulatory mechanisms and exercise effects / J. Peake, P. Della Gatta, K. Suzuki, D.C. Nieman // Exerc. Immunol. Rev. — 2015. — Vol. 21. — P. 8-25.

Adequate nutrition may get you home: effect of caloric/protein deficits on the discharge destination of critically ill surgical patients / Yeh D.D., Fuentes E., Quraishi S.A., Cropano C., Kaafa­rani H., Lee J., King D.R. et al. // J. Parenter. Enteral. Nutr. — 2016. — Vol. 40. — P. 37-44. doi: 10.1177/0148607115585142.

Gastrointestinal function in intensive care patients: termino­logy, definitions and management. Recommendations of the ESICM Workin Group on Abdominal Problems / Reintam Blaser A., Malbrain M.L., Starkopf J., Fruhwald S., Jakob S.M., De Waele J., Braun J.P., Poeze M., Spies C. // Intensive Care Med. — 2012. — Vol. 38, № 3. — P. 384-394. doi: 10.1007/s00134-011-2459-y.

Definition and classification of intestinal failure in adults / Pironi L., Arends J., Baxter J., Bozzetti F., Peláez R.B., Cuerda C., Forbes A. et al. // Clinical Nutrition. — 2015. — Vol. 34, Iss. 2. — P. 171-180.

Management of acute intestinal failure: A position paper from the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) Special Interest Group / Klek S., Forbes A., Gabe S., Holst M., Wanten G., Irtunf Ø., Olde Damink S. et al. // Clinical Nutrition. — 2016. — Vol. 35, Is. 6. — P. 1209-1218.

ESPEN guideline: Clinical nutrition in surgery / Weimann A., Braga M., Carli F., Higashiguchi T., Hübner M., Klek S., Laviano A. et al. // Clinical Nutrition. — 2017. — Vol. 36, Iss. 3. — P. 623-650.

ESPEN guidelines on nutritional support for polymorbid internal medicine patients / Gomes F., Schuetz P., Bounoure L., Austin P., Ballesteros-Pomar M., Cederholm T., Fletcher J. et al. // Clinical Nutrition. — 2017. — Vol. XXX. — P. 1-18.

ESPEN guideline on clinical nutrition in the intensive care unit / Singer P., Reintam Blaser A., Berger M.M., Alhazzani W., Calder P.C., Casaer M.P., Hiesmayrh M. et al. // Clinical Nutrition. — 2018. — Vol. XXX. — P. 1-32.

Short-term amino acid infusion improves protein ba­lance in critically ill patients / Liebau F., Sundstrom M., van Loon L.J., Wernerman J., Rooyackers O. // Crit. Care. — 2015. — Vol. 19. — P. 106. doi: 10.1186/s13054-015-0844-6.

A reappraisal of nitrogen requirements for patients with critical illness and trauma / Dickerson R.D., Pitts S.L., Maish G., Schroeppel T.J., Magnotti L.J., Croce M.A., Minard G. et al. // J. Trauma Acute Care Surg. — 2012. — Vol. 73. — P. 549-557. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e318256de1b.

ESPEN endorsed recommendations: Protein intake and exercise for optimal muscle function with aging: Recommendations from the ESPEN / Deutz N.E.P., Bauer J.M., Barazzoni R., Biolo G., Boirie Y., Bosy-Westphal A., Cederholm T., Cruz-Jentoft A. et al. // Clinical Nutrition. — 2014. — Vol. 33. — P. 939-936.

Protein delivery in the intensive care unit: optimal or suboptimal? / Heyland D.K., Weijs P.J.M., Coss-Bu J.A., Taylor B., Kristof A.S., O’Keefe G.E., Martindale R.G. // Nutr. Clin. Pract. — 2017. — Vol. 32, № 1. — P. 58-71. doi: 10.1177/0884533617691245.

Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Adult Critically Ill Patient: Society of Criti­cal Care Medicine (SCCM) and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) / McClave S.A., Taylor B.E., Martindale R.G., Warren M.M., Johnson D.R., Braunschweig C., McCarthy M.S. et al. // JPEN J. Parent. Enter. Nutr. — 2016. — Vol. 40. — P. 159-211. doi: 10.1177/0148607115621863.

Heyland D.K. Should we prescribe more protein to critically ill patients? / D.K. Heyland, R. Stapleton, C. Comphe // Nutrients. — 2018. — Vol. 10, Iss. 4. — P. 462. doi: 10.3390/nu10040462.

The effect of higher protein dosing in critically ill patients (EFFORT) [(accessed on 7 April 2018)]; Available online: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03160547.

Nutrition and Exercise in Critical Illness (NEXIS) [(accessed on 7 April 2018)]; Available online: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03021902.

Short-term amino acid infusion improves protein ba­lance in critically ill patients / Liebau F., Sundström M., van Loon L.J., Wernerman J., Rooyackers O. // Crit. Care. — 2015. — Vol. 19. — P. 106. doi: 10.1186/s13054-015-0844-6.

Intravenous amino acid therapy for kidney function in critically ill patients: A randomized controlled trial / Doig G.S., Simpson F., Bellomo R., Heighes P.T., Sweetman E.A., Che­sher D., Pollock C. et al. // Intens. Care Med. — 2015. — Vol. 41. — P. 1197-1208. doi: 10.1007/s00134-015-3827-9.

Protein requirements for critically ill patients with renal and liver failure / J.J. Patel, C.J. McClain, M. Sarav, J. Hamilton-Reeves, R.T. Hurt // Nutrition in Clinical Practice. — 2017. — Vol. 32, Iss. 1. — P. 101-111. https://doi.org/10.1177/0884533616687501.

Kim T.Y. Acute-on-chronic liver failure / T.Y. Kim, D.J. Kim // Clin. Mol. Hepatol. — 2013. — Vol. 19, № 4. — P. 349-359.

The mitochondrial ornithine transporter bacterial expression, reconstitution, functional characterization, and tissue distribution of two human isoforms / G. Fiermonte, V. Dolce, L. David, F.M. Santorelli, C. Dionisi-Vici, F. Palmier, J. Walker // The Journal of Biological Chemistry. — 2003. — Vol. 278, Iss. 35. — P. 32778-32783. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M302317200

The 2007 ESPEN Sir David Cuthbertson Lecture: Amino acid between and within organs. The glutamate-glutamine-citrulline-arginine pathway / N.E.P. Deuts // Clinical Nutrition. — 2008. — Vol. 27. — P. 321-327.

Metabolism of ornithine, α-ketoglutarate and arginine in isolated perfused rat liver / De Bandt J.P., Cynober L., Lim S.K., Coudray-Lucas C., Poupon R., Giboudeau J. // Br. J. Nutrition. — 1995. — Vol. 73, Iss.2. — Р. 227-239.

L-Ornithine-L-Aspartate in experimental portal-systemic encephalopathy: therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of action / C. Rose, A. Michalak, P. Pannunzio, G. Therrien, G. Quack, G. Kircheis, R.F. Butterworth // Butterworth Metabolic Brain Disease. — 1998. — Vol. 13, Iss. 2. — Р. 147-157.

A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous L-ornithine-L-aspartate on postural control in patients with cirrhosis / Schmid M., Peck-Radosavljevic M., König F., Mittermaier C., Gangl A., Ferenci P. // Liver Int. — 2010. — Vol. 30, № 4. — P. 574-82.

Сорокина Е.Ю. Острые нарушения функции печени у пациентов отделения интенсивной терапии и методы метаболической терапии / Сорокина Е.Ю. // Медицина неотложных состояний. — 2015. — № 8 (71). — С. 15-25.

Hepatic encephalopathy in chronic liver disease: 2014 practice guideline by the american association for the study of liver diseases and the european association for the study of the liver / Vilstrup H., Amodio P., Bajaj J., Cordoba J., Ferenci P., Mullen K.D., Weissenborn K., Wong P. // Hepatology. — 2014. — Vol. 60, № 2. — P. 715-735.

Williams J.Z. Effect of a specialized amino acid mixture on human collagen deposition / J.Z. Williams, N. Abumrad, A. Barbul // Ann. Surg. — 2002. — Vol. 236. — Р. 369-375.

Jonker R. Role of specific dietary amino acids in clinical conditions / R. Jonker, Mariëlle P.K.J. Engelen, N.E.P. Deutz // Br. J. Nutr. — 2012. — Vol. 108. — P. 139-148. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512002358

Электрофизиологический метод диагностики печеночной энцефалопатии у больных с панкреатитом / Сорокина Е.Ю., Белых Л.С., Панин А.Н., Никитина Е.В. // Біль, знеболення та інтенсивна терапія. — 2017. — № 4 (81). — С. 39-47. doi: https://doi.org/10.25284/2519-2078.4(81).2017.119286.

Верификация и коррекция печеночной энцефалопатии у больных с острым панкреатитом / Белых Л.С., Никитина Е.В., Страх О.П., Шипилов С.А., Кумченко В.В., Сорокина Е.Ю. // World Science. — 2017. — Vol. 4, № 11 (27). — С. 38-43.

Targeted full energy and protein delivery in critically ill patients: a study protocol for a pilot randomised control trial (FEED Trial) / Fetterplace K., Deane A.M., Tierney A., Beach L., Knight L.D., Rechnitzer T., Forsyth A. et al. // Pilot Feasibility Stud. — 2018. — Vol. 4. — P. 52. doi: 10.1186/s40814-018-0249-9.

Schefold J.C. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW) and muscle wasting in critically ill patients with severe sepsis and septic shock / J.C. Schefold, J. Bierbrauer, S. Weber-Carstens // J. Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle. — 2010. — Vol. 1, Iss. 2. — P. 147-157. doi: 10.1007/s13539-010-0010-6.

Impact of supplementation with amino acids or their metabolites on muscle wasting in patients with critical illness or other muscle wasting illness: a systematic review / L. Wandrag, S.J. Brett, G. Frost, M. Hickson // J. Hum. Nutr. Diet. — 2015. — Vol. 28, Iss. 4. — P. 313-330. doi: 10.1111/jhn.12238.

Quality of life in the five years after intensive care: a cohort study / Cuthbertson B.H., Roughton S., Jenkinson D., Maclennan G., Vale L. // Crit Care. — 2010. — Vol. 14. — P. 6. doi: 10.1186/cc8848.

Validation of bedside ultrasound of muscle layer thickness of the quadriceps in the critically ill patient (VALIDUM study): a prospective multicenter study / Paris M.T., Mourtzakis M., Day A., Leung R., Watharkar S., Kozar R., Earthman C. et al. // JPEN J. Parenter. Enteral. Nutr. — 2017. — Vol. 41, Iss. 2. — P. 171-180. doi: 10.1177/0148607116637852.

Longitudinal changes in anthropometrics and impact on self-reported physical function after traumatic brain injury / Chapple L.S., Deane A.M., Williams L., Strickland R., Schultz C., Lange K., Heyland D.K. et al. // Critical Care and Resuscitation. — 2017. — Vol. 19, № 1. — P. 29-36.

Deer R.R. Protein requirements in critically ill older adults / R.R. Deer, E. Volpi // Nutrients. — 2018. — Vol. 10, Iss. 3. — P. 378. doi: 10.3390/nu10030378.




Copyright (c) 2019 EMERGENCY MEDICINE

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 

© Publishing House Zaslavsky, 1997-2019

 

   Seo анализ сайта