The combination of endoscopic and laparoscopic techniques in the treatment of acute cholangitis
Background. Therapeutic measures for acute cholangitis must necessarily envisage two main directions: elimination of biliary hypertension and the fight against inflation in the biliary tract. Without timely adequate treatment, this disease is fatal. In acute cholangitis, any surgical intervention that provides sufficient drainage of the biliary tree is considered adequate, since it eliminates one of the principal links (biliary hypertension) in the chain of the pathogenesis of acute cholangitis. After the acute process has been eliminated, the causes of acute cholangitis are reduced in order to prevent subsequent biliary complications. The use of laparoscopic surgical procedures in acute cholangitis in most cases is limited only to laparoscopic cholecystectomy after the cholangitis elimination. Material and methods. Laparoscopic and video-assisted surgeries were performed in 125 patients with acute cholangitis at different times in relation to endoscopic transduction interventions. In total, these patients underwent 151 video laparoscopic and 102 endoscopic surgical interventions. Among them, endoscopic: endoscopic papillosphincterotomy — 102, including 87 mechanical lithotripsies, 25 lithoextractions; and videolaparoscopic: 113 laparoscopic cholecystectomies, 12 laparoscopic cholecystostomies, laparoscopic dissection and drainage of cholangiogenic liver abscess — 9, laparoscopic and video-assisted drainage of the choledoch — 8, laparoscopic and video-assisted choledocholithotomy — 5, laparoscopic and video-assisted cholecystojejunostomy — 4. Results. Postoperative complications occurred in 9 patients (7.2 %). There were no lethal outcomes. Laparoscopic surgeries and endoscopic transpapillar interventions were performed in a different sequence depending on the presence of destructive changes in the gallbladder and complemented each other. Conclusions. Operative interventions using video-laparoscopic technology in most cases make it possible to eliminate biliary hypertension as one of the pathogenetic factors of acute cholangitis and to eliminate the cause of its occurrence.
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