DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0586.1.96.2019.158754

Diagnosis and correction of thrombotic complications in patients amenable to bariatric surgery

R.E. Sukhonos

Abstract


Background. About 2.8 million people die annually from obesity and its complications worldwide. Obesity is an independent risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE), as it interferes with the internal and external pathways of coa­gulation, as well as anticoagulant mechanisms, which leads to hypercoagulation. Reducing excess body weight in patients with morbid obesity by bariatric surgery is becoming increa­singly popular, as bariatric therapy is an effective mean of trea­ting obesity and related concomitant diseases. Advantages of bariatric surgery are undeniable, as well as risks. Despite many blood coagulation studies, cases of thromboembolism in such patients are becoming more frequent, especially during surgical interventions and in the postoperative period, given that the operation is a trigger factor for the development of thromboembolism. Materials and methods. Hemostatic system was studied in 53 patients with body mass index (BMI) > 35 kg/m2. All patients were divided into 3 groups: group 1 (n = 15) — patients who received combined therapy: 0.1% enoxaparin sodium 0.2 ml/kg 2 times a day every 12 hours, and pentoxifylline 100 mg 2 times a day every 12 hours; group 2 (n = 17) — patients treated with 0.1% enoxaparin sodium 0.2 ml/kg 2 times daily for every 12 hours; group 3 (control) — 21 people with obesity, BMI > 35 kg/m2, not amenable to bariatric surgery. The study of the hemostatic system was carried out using low-frequency piezoelectric thromboelastography (LPTEG) immediately after hospitalization and on days 1, 3, 5 after surgery. The following blood coagulation constants were checked: constants of coagulation intensity; intensity of coagulation drive; maximum clot density; fibrinolytic activity — the index of retraction and lysis of the clot. Results. In patients of group 1 (anticoagulants + antiplatelet agents), the risk of thrombotic complications was lower, since this therapy has reduced the values at all stages of hemocoagulation to the reference values. Patients in group 2 (anticoagulants), despite the normalization of the coagulation link, had an increase in aggregation and fibrinolysis, relative to the norm, which means that the risk of thrombotic complications remains high. Conclusions. The instrumental method of LPTEG allowed to adequately estimate the system of hemocoagulation in dynamics in patients with morbid obesity, with BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2; this category of patients has shown a high risk of VTE; it has been proved that for an adequate prevention of VTE in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery, the combination of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents is more effective than monotherapy with anticoagulants.


Keywords


obesity; thrombosis; hemostasis; enoxaparin; pentoxifylline

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