DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0586.4.99.2019.173931

Trans-esophageal echocardiography and its place in the perioperative monitoring (literature review)

M. Vasylyv, Ya. Pidhirnyy

Abstract


Echocardiography (the use of ultrasound to examine the activity of the heart) is a safe, potent, non-invasive and painless technique. Since the time of its introduction into clinical medicine in 1980s, intraoperative trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEechoCG) has become one of the most important achievements in modern anesthesiology. This semi-invasive technique allows performing direct and quick visualization of structural anatomy of the heart and large vessels. In addition, it promotes hemodynamic and functional evaluation of cardiovascular system. At the beginning, trans-esophageal echocardiography was applied as an intraoperative tool with the aim of systolic function evaluation of the left ventricle, while the clinical application of TEechoCG has increased significantly for the two past centuries. It includes: evaluation of diastolic function, evaluation of the pathology and function of both mitral and aortic valves, detection of residual intracardiac defects and shunts, detection of intracardiac blood clots and evaluation of the ascending aorta. Thus, trans-esophageal echocardiography is a safe and low-risk examination which has been used for centuries in both intraoperative and postoperative periods in cardiovascular surgery. This method prevails over other techniques of cardiovascular monitoring due to providing detailed anatomic and physiological information in real time. Trans-esophageal echocardiography is able to provide data which influence the surgical approach and anesthesia as well as immediate evaluation of surgical results. Main restrictions concerning its routine application are connected with the cost of equipment and the necessity of professional qualification. Anesthesiology extends the role of TEechoCG in the postoperative medicine providing vitally important clinical information required for the anesthetic procedure. Taking into account all advantages demonstrated in this paper and low risk of the technique, authors confirm current recommendations on the use of intraoperative TEechoCG in cardiosurgical patients. This paper aims at performing comprehensive review of intraoperative use of TEechoCG in cardiovascular surgery.

Keywords


trans-esophageal echocardiography; intraoperative monitoring; review

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