DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0586.8.103.2019.192377

Clinical and neurological features of the vascular pathology of the brain in military personnel evacuated from the zone of Joint Forces Operation

O.V. Saiko

Abstract


Stroke is one of the most important medical and social problems. More than 17 million strokes occur annually, about 6 million people die due to this disease. Over the past 25 years, the prevalence of cerebral stroke increased by 113 %, the incidence — by 70 %, mortality from stroke — by 36 %, disability — by 73 %, number of strokes in people aged 20–64 years — by 25 %, cerebral hemorrhages — by 16 %. The INTERSTROKE population study showed that most significant risk factors for ischemic stroke after arterial hypertension (35 %) are lack of regular physical activity, obesity (26 %), apolipoprotein B and I1 ratio (25 %), tobacco smoking (19 %), unhealthy diet (19 %), cardiologic factors (7 %), diabetes mellitus, depression, psychosocial stress (5 %). Recently, the concept of stress in the conditions of hostilities, which has a multi-valued interpretation, is of particular importance, and the introduction of the definition of “traumatic”, on the one hand, emphasizes the intensity of stress factors, and on the other, the potential risk of psychological trauma under their influence. However, the main risk factors for developing cerebral stroke in military personnel, who are on the front line in the military conflict zone, remain arterial hypertension, atherosclerotic lesions of blood vessels, lipid metabolism disorders, congenital and acquired heart defects, congenital and acquired pathology of intra- and extracranial vessels, cerebral strokes, diabetes mellitus and obesity. These factors play a special role against the background of constant psycho-emotional trauma and chronic combat stress, smoking and the periodic use of strong alcoholic beverages, which are also triggers of serious cardiovascular events. Depression and anxiety symptoms that occur in a significant number of sick military personnel can enhance the manifestations of acquired somatic pathologies and accelerate the occurrence of sudden acute cerebral catastrophes, the progression of chronic brain ischemia.

Keywords


cerebral stroke; chronic cerebral ischemia; laboratory and instrumental studies; clinical and neurological characteristics; risk factors; armed conflict

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