DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0586.16.1.2020.196940

Intoxications by tetraethyl lead

V.S. Tkachyshyn

Abstract


Tetraethyl lead and its mixtures belong to the group of strong neurotropic poisons of the first class of hazard. Acute and chronic intoxications by tetraethyl lead and its mixtures are characterized mainly by damage to the central nervous system. In terms of severity of the course, there are three stages of the acute intoxication caused by tetraethyl lead: initial (asthenic syndrome, organic syndrome as encephalopathy, or pseudoparalytic, predelirium syndrome), preclimatic and climatic. In terms of severity, there are three stages of chronic intoxication: initial, toxic encephalopathy and psychomotor disorders. Diagnosis of poisoning is based on anamnestic data, clinical picture of the disease and the presence of lead in the urine due to the decay of tetraethyl lead in the body. In acute and chronic intoxications caused by tetraethyl lead and its mixtures, there are no changes in the blood and porphyrin metabolism that are characteristic of the effects of inorganic lead compounds. Treatment is symptomatic. There are no specific antidotes. Skin should be cleaned and contaminated clothing should be changed. In case of leaded gasoline swallowing, the stomach must be repeatedly lavaged using activated carbon until the odor disappears in the flushing water. Patients with acute and chronic intoxication caused by tetraethyl lead require complete rest, sleeping pills and sedatives, vitamins, warm baths (37 °C) before bedtime. Glucose solution with ascorbic acid is administered intravenously.

Keywords


tetraethyl lead; toxic substance; intoxication; diagnosis; treatment

References


Стеблева Т.Ф., Карпушина И.А., Ельчанинов А.П. Случай тяжелого отравления тетраэтилсвинцом. Биомедицинский журнал. 2004. Т. 5. Ст. 119. С. 401-403. Режим доступа: http://www.medline.ru/public/art/tom5/art119.phtml

Ткачишин В.С. Професійні хвороби. Київ: Інформаційно-аналітичне агентство, 2011. С. 457-461.




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