DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0586.16.1.2020.196941

Intoxications by carbon disulfide

V.S. Tkachyshyn

Abstract


Carbon disulfide (CS2) is a colorless oily liquid with an original smell, which reminds chloroform. It is very toxic. Carbon disulfide is widely applied in manufacture of viscose fibres, cellophane, in the chemical industry — as solvent of phosphorus, fats, rubbers, in the agriculture — as insecticide. It enters the body through respiratory ways and skin. Carbon disulfide belongs to neurotoxic poisons, which affects mainly the higher departments of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Carbon disulfide can cause acute and chronic intoxications. For acute poisonings by carbon disulfide, rapid development of semiology is typical. In terms of a degree of manifestations, there are mild, moderate and severe forms of acute carbon disulfide poisonings. It is characterized mainly by symptoms according to the type of intoxication, which gradually becomes a narcosis. In terms of clinical course, there are 3 stages of chronic intoxication: functional (carbon disulfide neurosis), initial organic changes, organic (toxic encephalopathy and polyneuritis). In cases of acute intoxication, the victim should be immediately taken out from the danger area into the fresh air. It is necessary to create conditions of rest, to give strong tea, coffee. There are no specific antidotes. Symptomatic treatment is carried out according to clinical manifestations of disease. Oxygen therapy (15 minutes — carbogen, 45 minutes — oxygen) to be performed. Stimulants of the heart and respiratory center are introduced. In chronic intoxication, intravenous infusions of 40% glucose solution (20 ml), the use of vitamin B6, glutamic acid, copper sulfate or acetate for 3–4 weeks are effective. Patients with toxic encephalopathy should take tranquilizers, antidepressants. Oxygen therapy and physiotherapeutic methods of treatment are also used (galvanic stimulation of the collar zone, carbonic baths).

Keywords


carbon disulfide; toxic substance; intoxication; diagnosis; treatment

References


Зобнин Ю.В. Острые токсические нейропатии. Сибирский медицинский журнал. 2008. № 4. С. 107-110. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/ostrye-toksicheskie-neyropatii.

Ткачишин В.С. Професійні хвороби. Київ: Інформаційно-аналітичне агентство, 2011. С. 468-473.




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