Factors associated with cardiac remodeling in the long-term period in patients with invasive treatment strategy for acute coronary syndrome
Background. Heart failure is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Patients with post-infarction remodeling have high risk of developing heart failure. It is important to identify impact factors influencing the risk of cardiac remodeling in the long-term period after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) preventing the progression of ventricular dilation, deterioration of their function and development of heart failure. The purpose: to identify factors associated with cardiac remodeling after ACS in patients with invasive treatment strategy. Materials and methods. The study included 74 patients who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of ACS in 2015. Echocardiography was used to study the dynamics of left ventricular volume and function: end-diastolic index (EDI), end-systolic index (ESI) and ejection fraction (EF) after 1 year. According to the parameters mentioned above, research groups were formed. Types of structural and geometric remodeling were determined according to the principles of A. Ganau. Results. It was determined that the average values of the studied parameters in patients with ACS upon admission and after 1 year had significant differences, such as left atrial enlargement (p = 0.042), increased ESI (p = 0.026) and decreased relative wall thickness (p = 0.042). The frequency of changes in remodeling parameters, which had negative signs depending on ESI, was 40.54 % with EF of 18.9 % and EDI of 24.3 %. Patients of the ESI-1 group had an increase in baseline end-diastolic volume (EDV) (p = 0.00002), end-systolic volume (ESV) (p = 0.00001) and left atrial size (р = 0.0005). In the acute period, patients of the EF-1 group had significantly increased baseline ESV (p = 0.00001), EDV (p = 0.00002); the restrictive type of diastolic dysfunction also prevailed (p = 0.007). Upon admission, number of patients with normal cardiac geometry and concentric hypertrophy prevailed, and 1 year after ACS, the type of remodeling changed to eccentric hypertrophy. Conclusions. ESI and EDI are earlier predictors of post-infarction remodeling compared to the EF. Restrictive type of diastolic dysfunction at admission is associated with the development of maladaptive left ventricular remodeling in 1 year. One year after ACS, the type of remodeling changed to eccentric hypertrophy.
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