Acute toxic gas poisonings in the workplace (lecture)
Keywords:ammonia, arsine, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen sulfide, formaldehyde, chlorine, gasoline, acute poisoning, emergency medical care, chemical production
The lecture presents the main mechanisms of damage to the body, the typical clinical picture and the principles of emergency medical care (EMС) and intensive care in victims of acute poisonings by toxic gases. Due to the fact that the risk of simultaneous appearance of a large number of victims with such poisonings is always high in the conditions of chemical production, the issue of providing EMС to this group of patients is always relevant. The lecture considers the features of damage to the human body with ammonia, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, arsine, nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide and gasoline vapors. All these chemical compounds are widespread chemical reagents and reaction intermediates in production. The inhalation route by which volatile substances enter the body determines the accelerated development of clinical symptoms due to the rapid pass of toxic chemicals into the blood of patients. Disorders in the functioning of the external respiratory system are among the most common ones when inhaling such aggressive chemical compounds as ammonia, chlorine, nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde, gasoline vapors. The intake of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides and hydrogen sulfide poses a high risk of hemic hypoxia and related damage to the central nervous system and cardiovascular system. Inhalation of compounds such as hydrogen sulfide, arsine, formaldehyde, carbon monoxide determines the development of disorders of tissue respiration. Almost all chemical compounds, the action of which is presented in the lecture, can have a general toxic effect on patients. The need to immediately stop the contact with the toxic substance, prevention and intensive care of patients with acute respiratory failure syndrome, use of antidotes and drugs with antihypoxic effect, which improve tissue respiration and promote energy production, are highlighted when considering the aspects of providing EMС.
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