Multiple-organ failure in patients with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19)
Keywords:COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, multiple-organ dysfunctions, multiple-organ failure, cytokine imbalance, intensive care, review
The article analyzes the mechanisms of the development and clinical manifestations of multi-organ dysfunction and multi-organ failure syndrome, which often accompany the severe COVID-19. Moreover, since multiple organ dysfunction during severe COVID-19 may be caused by a cytokine storm resulting from elevated inflammatory mediators, endothelial dysfunction, coagulation disorders, and inflammatory cell infiltration, further studies are needed to determine the exact mechanisms of pathogenesis. Since the involvement of multiple organs in the pathological process of the disease during coronavirus infection is an important and complex medical, mental, tactical, physical, emotional, and economic task for both clinicians and patients and their families, increasing knowledge of the pathological process can help improve outcomes and reduce morbidity and mortality. The review includes some results of our own experience in the treatment of severe cases of coronavirus disease.
Liu D.X., Liang J.Q., Fung T.S. Human Coronavirus-229E, -OC43, -NL63, and -HKU1. Reference Module in Life Sciences. 2020a. B978-970-912-809633-809638.10.1016/B978-0-12-809633-8.21501-X.
Baud D., Qi X., Nielsen-Saines K., Musso D., Pomar L., Favre G. Real estimates of mortality following COVID-19 infection. Lancet Infect. Dis. 2020 Jul. 20(7). 773.
Lei F., Liu Y.M., Zhou F., Qin J.J., Zhang P., Zhu L. et al. Longitudinal Association Between Markers of Liver Injury and Mortality in COVID-19 in China. Hepatology. 2020 Aug. 72(2). 389-398.
Guzik T.J., Mohiddin S.A., Dimarco A., Patel V., Savvatis K. et al. COVID-19 and the cardiovascular system: implications for risk assessment, diagnosis, and treatment options. Cardiovasc. Res. 2020, Aug 1. 116(10). 1666-1687.
Cheng Y., Luo R., Wang K., Zhang M. Kidney disease is associated with in-hospital death of patients with COVID-19. Kidney Int. 2020 May. 97(5). 829-838.
Mukherjee A., Ahmad M., Frenia D. A Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Patient with Multifocal Pneumonia Treated with Hydroxychloroquine. Cureus. 2020, Mar 30. 12(3). e7473.
Yi Y., Lagniton P.N.P., Ye S., Li E., Xu R.H. COVID-19: what has been learned and to be learned about the novel coronavirus disease. Int. J. Biol. Sci. 2020. 16(10). 1753-1766.
Chen J., Qi T., Liu L., Ling Y., Qian Z. Clinical progression of patients with COVID-19 in Shanghai, China. J. Infect. 2020 May. 80(5). 1-6.
Wu C., Chen X., Cai Y., Xia J. Risk Factors Associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Death in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA Intern. Med. 2020, Jul 1. 180(7). 934-943.
Hamming I., Timens W., Bulthuis M.L., Lely A.T., Navis G., van Goor H. Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis. J. Pathol. 2004 Jun. 203(2). 631-637.
Pyrc K., Berkhout B., van der Hoek. The novel human coronaviruses NL63 and HKU1. J. Virol. 2007 Apr. 81(7). 3051-3057.
Imai Y., Kuba K., Rao S., Huan Y., Guo F., Guan B. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protects from severe acute lung failure. Nature. 2005, Jul 7. 436(7047). 112-116.
Yamamoto S., Yancey P.G., Zuo Y., Ma L.J. Macrophage polarization by angiotensin II-type 1 receptor aggravates renal injury-acceleration of atherosclerosis. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 2011 Dec. 31(12). 2856-2864.
Channappanavar R., Perlman S. Pathogenic human coronavirus infections: causes and consequences of cytokine storm and immunopathology. Semin. Immunopathol. 2017 Jul. 39(5). 529-539.
Lei F., Liu Y.M., Zhou F., Qin J.J., Zhang P. et al. Longitudinal Association Between Markers of Liver Injury and Mortality in COVID-19 in China. Hepatology. 2020 Aug. 72(2). 389-398.
Gao T. et al. Highly pathogenic coronavirus N protein aggravates lung injury by MASP-2-mediated complement over-activation. MedRxiv. 2020.
Ciceri F., Beretta L., Scandroglio A.M., Colombo S. Microvascular COVID-19 lung vessels obstructive thromboinflammatory syndrome (MicroCLOTS): an atypical acute respiratory distress syndrome working hypothesis. Crit. Care Resusc. 2020, Apr 15. 22(2). 95-97.
Wölfel R., Corman V.M., Guggemos W., Seilmaier M., Zange S. Virological assessment of hospitalized patients with COVID-2019. Nature. 2020 May.
Yang J., Zheng Y., Gou X. Prevalence of comorbidities in the novel Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19) infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 12]. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.017. S1201-9712(20)30136-3.
Wang D., Hu B., Hu C. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China [published online ahead of print, 2020 Feb 7]. JAMA. 2020. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.1585.
Khashkhusha T.R., Chan J.S.K., Harky A. ACE inhibitors and COVID-19: We don’t know yet. J. Card. Surg. 2020. doi: 10.1111/jocs.14582.
Tan L., Wang Q., Zhang D. Lymphopenia predicts disease severity of COVID-19: a descriptive and predictive study. Sign. Transduct. Target. Ther. 2020. 5(1). 33.
Mina A., van Besien K., Platanias L.C. Hematological manifestations of COVID-19. Leukemia Lymphoma. 2020. DOI: 10.1080/10428194.2020.1788017 [Ref list].
Lippi G., Plebani M., Henry B.M. Thrombocytopenia is associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections: A meta-analysis. Clin. Chim. Acta. 2020 Jul. 506. 145-148.
Terpos E. et al. Hematological findings and complications of COVID-19 American journal of hematology [Ref list]. 2020.
COVID-19 update: COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. Becker RCJ Thromb. Thrombolysis. 2020 Jul. 50(1). 54-67.
Cals J.W., Schot M.J., de Jong S.A., Dinant G.J., Hopstaken R.M. Point-of-care C-reactive protein testing and antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled trial. Ann. Fam. Med. 2010 Mar-Apr. 8(2). 124-133.
Tan T., Khoo B., Mills E.G., Phylactou M., Patel B. Association between high serum total cortisol concentrations and mortality from COVID-19. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2020 Aug. 8(8). 659-660.
Wu M.Y., Yao L., Wang Y., Zhu X.Y., Wang X.F., Tang P.J., Chen C. Clinical evaluation of potential usefulness of serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia. Respir. Res. 2020, Jul 6. 21(1). 171.
Arentz M., Yim E., Klaff L. Characteristics and outcomes of 21 critically ill patients with COVID-19 in Washington State [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 19]. JAMA. 2020. 323(16). 1612-1614.
Zhou F., Yu T., Du R. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study [published correction appears in Lancet. 2020, Mar 28. 395(10229). 1038] [published correction appears in Lancet. 2020 Mar 28;395(10229):1038]. Lancet. 2020. 395. 1054-1062. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3.
Cheng Y., Luo R., Wang K. Kidney disease is associated with in-hospital death of patients with COVID-19 [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 20]. Kidney Int. 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2020.03.005. S0085-2538(20)30255-6.
Naicker S., Yang C.W., Hwang S.J., Liu B.C., Chen J.H., Jha V. The Novel Coronavirus 2019 epidemic and kidneys [published online ahead of print, 2020 Mar 7]. Kidney Int. 2020. doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2020.03.001.
Li Z., Wu M., Yao J. Caution on kidney dysfunctions of COVID-19 patients. medRxiv. 2020. doi: 10.1101/2020.02.08.20021212 [Cross Ref] [Google Scholar] [Ref list].
Su H., Yang M., Wan C., Yi L.X., Tang F., Zhu H.Y. Renal histopathological analysis of 26 postmortem findings of patients with COVID-19 in China. Kidney Int. 2020 Jul. 98(1). 219-227.
Zhang C., Shi L., Wang F.S. Liver injury in COVID-19: management and challenges. Lancet Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2020. 5. 428-430. doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30057-1.
Beeching N., Fowler R. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). BMJ Best Practice. 2020. https://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-gb/3000168/emergingtxs. Published Updated: Apr 2020. Accessed: April 11 2020.
Mao L., Wang M.D., Chen S.H. Neurological manifestation of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective case series study. medRxiv. 2020. doi: 10.1101/2020.02.22.20026500 [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list].
Li Y.C., Bai W.Z., Hashikawa T. The neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV-2 may play a role in the respiratory failure of COVID-19 patients [published online ahead of print, 2020 Feb 27]. J. Med. Virol. 2020. doi: 10.1002/jmv.25728 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list].
NHS. Clinical guide for the optimal use of oxygen therapy during the coronavirus pandemic. Specialty guides for patient management during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Published2020. Available at: https://www.england.nhs.uk/coronavirus/wp-content/uploads/sites/52/2020/04/C0256-specialty-guide-oxygen-therapy-and-coronavirus-9-april-2020.pdf [Accessed April 13, 2020]. [Ref list].
Guérin C., Reignier J., Richard J.C. Prone positioning in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 2013. 368. 2159-2168. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1214103. [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list].
Halushko O., Loskutov O., Kuchynska I., Synytsyn M., Boliuk M. The main causes of the complicated course of COVID-19 in diabetic patients (review). Georgian Medical News. 2020. № 10(307). 114-120.
Rhodes A., Evans L.E., Alhazzani W. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock: 2016. Intensive Care Med. 2017. 43. 304-377. doi: 10.1007/s00134-017-4683-6 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] [Ref list].
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Our edition uses the copyright terms of Creative Commons for open access journals.
Authors, who are published in this journal, agree with the following terms:
- The authors retain rights for authorship of their article and grant to the edition the right of first publication of the article on a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows others to freely distribute the published article, with the obligatory reference to the authors of original works and original publication in this journal.
- Directing the article for the publication to the editorial board (publisher), the author agrees with transmitting of rights for the protection and using the article, including parts of the article, which are protected by the copyrights, such as the author’s photo, pictures, charts, tables, etc., including the reproduction in the media and the Internet; for distributing; for the translation of the manuscript in all languages; for export and import of the publications copies of the writers’ article to spread, bringing to the general information.
- The rights mentioned above authors transfer to the edition (publisher) for the unlimited period of validity and on the territory of all countries of the world.
- The authors guarantee that they have exclusive rights for using of the article, which they have sent to the edition (publisher). The edition (the publisher) is not responsible for the violation of given guarantees by the authors to the third parties.
- The authors have the right to conclude separate supplement agreements that relate to non-exclusive distribution of their article in the form in which it had been published in the journal (for example, to upload the work to the online storage of the journal or publish it as part of a monograph), provided that the reference to the first publication of the work in this journal is included.
- The policy of the journal permits and encourages the publication of the article in the Internet (in institutional repository or on a personal website) by the authors, because it contributes to productive scientific discussion and a positive effect on efficiency and dynamics of the citation of the article.
- The rights to the article are deemed transferred by the authors to the edition (the publisher) since the moment of the publication of the article in the printed or electronic version of journal.