The place of dural puncture epidural as a modern method of pain relief in labor
Keywords:pain relief in labor, epidural analgesia, combined spinal-epidural analgesia, dural puncture epidural, hypotension
Childbirth is a physiological process that is accompanied by severe pain. Physiological and psychological factors may be involved in the pathological process. Increasing the concentration of catecholamines may help reduce uteroplacental perfusion. Pain during childbirth can lead to hyperventilation of the mother, which in turn can affect the acid-base status of the fetus and the state of the newborn. Prolonged pain can lead to the development of severe psychological disorders with a violation of the connection between mother and newborn. Acute pain during childbirth can transform into chronic in the postpartum period. The most effective are neuroaxial methods of analgesia: epidural analgesia, combined spinal-epidural analgesia and their modifications. Classical epidural analgesia has minimal adverse and side effects, but may be associated with a high incidence of insufficient analgesia. The frequency of inadequate epidural block reaches 23 %. Combined spinal-epidural analgesia, in contrast to epidural analgesia, has a higher quality of sensory block, but it is associated with a higher frequency of side effects such as hypotension, severe motor block, fetal arrhythmia. Since 2005, dural puncture epidural has been introduced into the practice of obstetric anesthesiologists as a method to improve the quality of classical epidural analgesia with minimal side effects of combined spinal-epidural analgesia. Data from existing studies show that dural puncture epidural potentially improves the quality of analgesia (faster onset of analgesia, better sacral coverage, lower incidence of inadequate block) compared with epidural analgesia and causes less hypotension, disorders of fetal heart rate compared with combined spinal-epidural analgesia. But the spinal needle size is important in achieving these effects. Further researches may be aimed at determining the duration of labor, the option of delivery and the possible impact of dural puncture epidural on the vegetative regulation of labor and a broader study of the impact of this method on the fetus and newborn.
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