Correction of iron deficiency in the clinical picture of internal medicine
Keywords:iron deficiency anemia, latent iron deficiency, ferritin, iron, diagnosis, treatment
Background. The purpose was to theoretically and practically substantiate the existing approaches to the problem of prevalence, causes, clinical manifestations, as well as diagnosis and use of the latest methods of treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) based on studying scientific ideas. Materials and methods. We used systematic analysis, synthesis, and generalization of scientific and medical literature to make it possible to consider modern views on the problem of IDA among different populations in terms of its epidemiology, etiology, presentation of iron metabolism in the body, and pathogenetic mechanisms of clinical and laboratory symptoms as well as modern methods of laboratory diagnosis of anemia and conclusions on a comprehensive approach to the treatment and prevention. Results. The most common blood disease is iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency occurs as a result of a mismatch between the body’s needs for iron and its intake or loss. According to the WHO, more than half of the population in different countries suffers from iron deficiency anemia. It covers all age groups but is most common in children, adolescents, and pregnant women. The symptoms of anemia are pale skin, fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath, loss of consciousness, dysfunction of many organs. The most common causes of iron deficiency anemia are bleeding from wounds or peptic ulcers, hemorrhoidal bleeding, excessive blood loss during menstruation, uterine fibroids, ulcerative colitis, malignant tumors, gastrectomy, and others. In this disease, the iron depot in the body decreases. According to data from domestic and foreign scientists, as well as the WHO, IDA of varying severity is observed in 20 % of the population. The treatment of IDA should first eliminate the cause of bleeding, prescribe a protein-enriched diet, vitamins, and trace elements. In many countries, the prevention and treatment of anemia are becoming a social challenge. The presence of iron deficiency reduces the quality of life of patients, disrupts their ability to work, causes functional disorders of many organs and systems. To prevent and eliminate iron deficiency, a whole group of iron-containing drugs is successfully used, the range of which is constantly replenishing and updating, as well as a comprehensive approach to treatment with modern iron drugs is discussing. Conclusions. The main pathological and physiological conditions that lead to the development of iron deficiency in different population groups are analyzed. Therefore, the treatment of IDA is aimed not only at eliminating anemia as a symptom, but also at eliminating iron deficiency and replenishing its reserves in the body, which can be achieved by taking a liposomal form of iron.
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