An Anatomical Study of Epidural Dye Spread after Caudal Injection in Adults

V.I. Kolomachenko


Caudal epidural anesthesia has a range of advantages for hip surgery. In 17 fresh cadavers, the sacral epidural space was punctured, then 0.01% methylene blue dye, 20 ml, was injected. In three cadavers the dye was in parasacral space. After successful caudal injection (in 14 cadavers) the epidural space was dyed at S1 and L5 levels in 14 (100 %) cadavers, at L4 level in 13 (93 %), at L3 in 12 (86 %), at L2 in 9 (64 %), at L1 in 5 (36 %), at T12 in 3 (21 %) cadavers, and at T11–T5 levels in 1 (7 %) cadaver only. In conclusion, caudally injected solution 20 ml surely bathes the coccygeal, sacral, and lower lumbar spinal roots, however distinct identification of the epidural space is necessary using various methods.


orthopedic surgery; caudal anesthesia


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