DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0586.1.64.2015.79532

Modern Non-Lethal Chemical Weapons: Toxicological and Clinical Aspects

N.V. Kurdil, A.V. Ivashchenko

Abstract


Variety of army accepted non-lethal toxic substances makes it difficult to create effective means of chemical protection, especially antidotal agents and display and alert systems.
The objective of the work was to study toxicological characteristics of the most common military and police means, features of the clinical picture of acute intoxication and the principles of emergency medical care. It was found that the special police units in Ukraine have different tear gases and irritants: aerosol packaging with tear gas («Cheriomukha-10», «Cheriomukha-110m», «Tiorien-4» and others); aerosol sprays with irritating composition («Siren-10»); aerosol sprays («Kontrol-m» (10% OC), «Kontrol-mk», «Kontrol-mm», «Rezeda-10», «Rezeda-10m», «Zveroboi-10», «Zveroboi-10m»). Chemical warfare agent in «Siren» — chlorobenzalmalonodinitrile — a lachrymator. Also special police units are equipped with sprays, cartrid­ges, grenades and other non-lethal weapons with lachrymatory and irritating action on the basis of natural capsaicinoids, pe­largonic acid morpholide, orthochlorobenzalmalononitrile and «Algogen» substance. Basic principles of medical care are based on symptomatic treatment and prevention of injury. Medical care measures should be aimed at preventing further action of the poison, the removal of particles of toxicant from the respiratory mucosa and conjunctiva, treatment of complications from respiratory and cardiovascular system caused by intoxication.


Keywords


non-lethal weapons; acute poisoning

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