The Impact of Powder Gases on Human Body

V.S. Tkachyshyn, K.S. Fomenko

Abstract


Objective: compilation of data on the impact of powder gases on the health of the personnel of military units. Working conditions of military personnel are affected by a number of environmental factors, among which air pollution with powder (explosive) gases is one of the most negative. Acute poisoning (powder disease) is observed in the case of staying in an atmosphere containing high concentrations of these compounds: during the service in the artillery, operating of all kinds of armored vehicles, working with explosives. Most toxic agents in the composition of powder gases are carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides. This article deals with the features of powder gas poisoning depending both on the specific actions of each of the components of a mixture of gases, and on their combined action. The defeat of the carbon dioxide is characterized by the development of the typical form, which includes symptoms of excitation of the respiratory center, hypercapnia, developing respiratory acidosis. In severe cases, the death occurs from paralysis of the respiratory center. Depending on the concentration of powder gases, the colrrelation of their components and other factors, there are deviations from typical course. No war passed without the participation of carbon monoxide. It causes the formation of carboxyhemoglobin with subsequent changes in the blood, respiratory, cardiovascular and especially nervous system. The impact of nitrogases on the organism occurs mainly in the form of toxic tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis and toxic pulmonary edema. At the same time, changes in the blood system (methemoglobinemia) can occur. Treatment is carried out differently according to the clinical symptoms of poisoning. After powder gas poisoning, for a long time there may be residual effects of the poisoning in the form of protracted asthenic condition. Therefore, these patients require a longer period of hospitalization and follow-up after discharge from hospital. According to the periodic intensification of hostilities in the Eastern Ukraine, a further study of the impact of explosive gases on the human body of service personnel and applying this knowledge in practice is important both for the medicine as a whole, and to prevent or reduce the incidence of powder disease.


Keywords


powder (explosive) gases; powder disease; carbon monoxide; carbon dioxide; nitrogen oxides (nitrogases)

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0586.6.77.2016.82177

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