Serotonergic system and cognitive functions
AbstractWorldwide, there are about 50 million people with dementia, 60 % of them live in low- and middle-income countries. About 10 million new cases occur every year. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, the proportion of the total population aged 60 years and older with dementia at any time point is from 5 to 8 people for every 100 people. According to forecasts, the total number of people with dementia will be about 82 million in 2030 and 152 by 2050.This growth will occur largely due to the increase in the number of people with dementia in low- and middle-income countries. WHO recognizes dementia as a public health priority. In May 2017, the World Health Assembly endorsed the Global Health Sector Action Plan for the Response to Dementia for 2017–2025. Worldwide, dementia is not sufficiently diagnosed, and when a diagnosis is made, it usually happens at a relatively late stage of the disease. The world’s population is aging and the number of people with dementia is increasing. The criteria for dementia according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, are memory disorders, both verbal and non-verbal, which manifest themselves in the inability to memorize new material, and in more severe cases, in the difficulty of reproducing previously learned information. The severity of dementia is determined by the violation of personal activity in life and professionalism. The duration of the symptoms should be 6 months. Violations must be objectified with the help of neuropsychological tests. Experts clarified that a decrease in serotonin is associated with a risk of dementia. Serotonin is produced as a result of the breakdown of L-tryptophan and its synthesis occurs in neurons, the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract and the epiphysis. In the intestine, up to 95 % of serotonin is adsorbed and enters the blood and is contained in platelets. Only 2 % of serotonin is localized in neurons. Objective: analysis of clinical features in patients with dementia, the study of their serum serotonin levels. Two hundred patients (120 men, 80 women) with dementia aged 40 to 75 years were examined. Their average age was 68 years. For the diagnosis of dementia, a brief scale for assessing mental status (Mini-Mental State Examination) was used. According to our data, the examination should be carried out for all patients suffering from dementia. Mini-Mental State Examination provides an opportunity to identify cognitive changes in a patient’s personality, as well as to determine serum serotonin levels and methods of neuroimaging (magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography), which helps in clarifying the clinical diagnosis, allows prescribe therapy temporarily and predict the disease. Diagnosis and prevention of dementia at an early stage is the indispensable problem in medicine.
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