Leading pathophysiological disorders in acute bowel obstruction (a clinical lecture)
Keywords:acute bowel obstruction, loss of fluid and electrolytes, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, gut flora translocation, pressure in the intestinal lumen, intra-abdominal pressure, dynamic bowel obstruction
AbstractThe article outlines modern views on the pathogenesis of acute bowel obstruction and summarizes the leading local and systemic pathophysiological disorders. It was emphasized both the common aspects, as well as differences in the pathogenesis of “high” and “low” acute bowel obstruction and the particular attention was paid to the specifics of the leading electrolyte disorders in each of the types. The main stages of the pathogenesis of local disorders and systemic effects are described and in particular, the article focuses on dysbiosis and gut microflora translocation, elevated pressure in the intestinal lumen and intraabdominal hypertension. The role of pain in the progression of respiratory disorders and cardiovascular activity is described. Special attention is paid to the pathogenesis of postoperative dynamic small bowel obstruction. Each section emphasizes the clinically significant disorders, the knowledge of which may be the key to the correct choice of intensive therapy methods, and finally the improvement of treatment results.
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