Phosphorus poisoning

Authors

  • O.M. Arustamian Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • V.S. Tkachyshyn Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • V.Ye. Kondratiuk Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • O.Yu. Aleksiychuk Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine
  • I.V. Dumka Bogomolets National Medical University, Kyiv, Ukraine

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0586.16.4.2020.207932

Keywords:

phosphorus, acute phosphorus poisoning, chronic phosphorus poisoning, treatment of phosphorus poisoning, prevention of phosphorus poisoning, phosphorism

Abstract

Phosphorus poisoning is a condition that occurs as a result of inhalation or the ingestion of phosphorus. It is observed in people working at industrial enterprises when acid or water gets on metals contaminated with phosphorus or working with acetylene. The maximum permissible concentration of phosphorus for industrial premises is 0.03 mg/m3. Routes of entry into the body are inhaled and oral, less commonly through damaged skin. Phosphorus after being absorbed penetrates the blood and tissues. It belongs to the group of so-called fermented poisons, which have the highest toxicity and act at the lowest concentration in the blood and tissues. The toxicity of phosphorus is based on the violation of intracellular oxidative processes. Yellow phosphorus is released with exhaled air, as well as feces and sweat. Under industrial conditions, acute phosphorus poisoning is extremely rare and is mainly the result of accidents, mainly when phosphorus gets inside and by inhalation. In acute poisoning, phosphorus primarily affects parenchymal organs, especially the liver, heart and nervous system. With these poisonings, the breakdown of proteins occurs with the formation of fat, leucine, tyrosine, sarcolactic acid. As a result of a large breakdown of protein, the content of nitrogenous products in the blood and their excretion in the urine increase. The lethal dose for yellow phosphorus can be 0.05–0.1 g. The clinical picture of acute phosphorus poisoning has 3 stages. Chronic poisoning with phosphorus is accompanied by a violation of calcium metabolism, accompanied by fragility and brittleness of bone. Chronic white phosphorus poisoning can lead to degeneration of adipose tissue and sequestration of the lower jaw. Chronic phosphorus poisoning is called “phosphorism” and has 3 degrees of severity.

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Published

2021-09-30

How to Cite

Arustamian, O., Tkachyshyn, V., Kondratiuk, V., Aleksiychuk, O., & Dumka, I. (2021). Phosphorus poisoning. EMERGENCY MEDICINE, 16(4), 56–63. https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0586.16.4.2020.207932

Issue

Section

Scientific Review