Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children аssociated with COVID-19
Keywords:intensive care, dialysis, children, coronavirus
Coronavirus disease is severe in the elderly and in people with chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cancers. It is generally accepted that in children, COVID-19 is much milder, and often is even asymptomatic. But there are some children who, against the background of the coronavirus infection, developed multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). Its pathophysiology is not fully understood. There are several hypotheses about the mechanisms of MIS-C development. It is assumed that the syndrome develops due to an excessive immune response to the virus. Having some similar mechanisms with Kawasaki disease, macrophage activation syndrome, the development of MIS-C still has significant diffe-
rences. Multiple organ damage occurs due to systemic inflammation, hypoxia, tissue ischemia. As a result, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome develops. Clinical manifestations are specific and reflect changes in all body systems. Laboratory studies revealed an increase in inflammatory markers, transaminases, creatinine, urea, coagulation disturbances. Treatment of multisystem inflammatory syndrome includes immunomodulatory and glucocorticoid therapies. Antibiotics, anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents are also administered, and in case of renal failure symptoms — dialysis replacement therapy. The article describes cases of successful treatment of children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with COVID-19, which show that MIS-C can mask a large number of diseases. Attention should be paid to the need for hospitalization of such patients into a unit with the possibility of hemodialysis, to the different approaches to treatment, the importance of renal replacement therapy. If the above requirements are met, it is possible to achieve a complete recovery of patients.
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Copyright (c) 2021 I.I. Gorelkin, V.N. Kapusta, I.A. Buinyi, E.V. Bachtina, S.A. Zhmychova
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