Physiology of magnesium metabolism and the use of magnesium in intensive care (part 2)

Authors

  • S.V. Kursov Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Kharkiv, Ukraine; MNPE “O.I. Meschchaninov Kharkiv Clinical Emergency Hospital” of the Kharkiv Regional Council, Kharkiv, Ukraine
  • V.V. Nikonov Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Kharkiv, Ukraine; MNPE “O.I. Meschchaninov Kharkiv Clinical Emergency Hospital” of the Kharkiv Regional Council, Kharkiv, Ukraine
  • O.V. Biletskyi Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Kharkiv, Ukraine; MNPE “O.I. Meschchaninov Kharkiv Clinical Emergency Hospital” of the Kharkiv Regional Council, Kharkiv, Ukraine
  • O.E. Feskov Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Kharkiv, Ukraine; MNPE “O.I. Meschchaninov Kharkiv Clinical Emergency Hospital” of the Kharkiv Regional Council, Kharkiv, Ukraine
  • S.M. Skoroplit Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Kharkiv, Ukraine; MNPE “O.I. Meschchaninov Kharkiv Clinical Emergency Hospital” of the Kharkiv Regional Council, Kharkiv, Ukraine

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0586.17.6.2021.242323

Keywords:

magnesium, water-electrolyte metabolism, hypomagnesemia, intensive care, magnesium therapy, stress, inflammation, intoxication, free radical oxidation, review

Abstract

In the second part of the review, aspects of changes in magnesium metabolism under conditions of severe stress, mechanisms of anti-stress protection of the body with the participation of magnesium, features of magnesium participation in water-electrolyte metabolism at the cellular level, the anti-inflammatory effect of magnesium and the role of magnesium in the processes of detoxification of the body in acute poisoning with certain poisons are consi-dered. The main mechanisms of the body’s magnesium defence are to suppress the mechanisms of oxidative stress by limiting the production of stress hormones, the intake of ionized calcium and sodium into cells with a decrease in the severity of transmineralization and sodium retention in the body, suppressing the action of factors that initiate the development of inflammation and reducing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, in blocking and protecting glutamate receptors. Magnesium therapy can help keep effective energy production in the body in critical conditions by maintaining the functioning of the Na+/K+-ATPase, the work of the
Na+/H+-exchanger, helping reduce the severity of cellular acidosis. The mechanisms of functioning and the prescription of the sodium-magnesium antiporter are discussed. Hypertonic solutions of magnesium sulfate are being injected at a high rate to create the effect of rapid low-volume fluid resuscitation, thereby eliminating the dangerous effects of severe hyperchloremia and hypernatremia that occur when using hypertonic sodium chloride solutions. In toxico-logy, magnesium preparations are used to protect the body when exposed to heavy metals, organophosphorus compounds. They also help reduce the severity of oxidative stress caused by heavy metals, inhibit excess production of endogenous carbon monoxide, and limit free radical damage in its pathological effect. During detoxification, magnesium prevents depletion of the antioxidant system by helping maintain sufficient levels of glutathione and other antioxidants in cells.

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Published

2022-01-10

How to Cite

Kursov, S., Nikonov, V., Biletskyi, O., Feskov, O., & Skoroplit, S. (2022). Physiology of magnesium metabolism and the use of magnesium in intensive care (part 2). EMERGENCY MEDICINE, 17(6), 17–27. https://doi.org/10.22141/2224-0586.17.6.2021.242323

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Scientific Review

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