Keywords:benzene, acute and chronic intoxication, clinical manifestation, anemia, disorders of the bone marrow hematopoiesis, carcinogen, leukemia
Benzene is a member of the aromatic hydrocarbon group and belongs to the group of blood poisons that cause inhibition of bone marrow hematopoiesis with the development of hypoplastic or aplastic anemia. The benzene can result in acute and chronic intoxication. Under industrial conditions, the penetration of benzene and its homologues into the human body is possible through the lungs and intact skin. The symptoms of changes in the nervous system and bone marrow hematopoiesis in acute and chronic exposure to benzene are different. Acute intoxication manifests itself with symptoms of damage to the central nervous system with the phenomena of general brain disorders, similar to poisoning with substances with narcotic properties. Chronic intoxication develops slowly, unnoticed by the patient, and is characterized by bone marrow damage with impaired blood cell formation. An atypical form of chronic benzene intoxication is the development of benzene leukemia. Therefore, benzene belongs to the group of industrial carcinogens. Typical forms of acute and chronic benzene intoxication are easy to recognize. To establish the diagnosis of benzene intoxication, it is necessary at first to have data confirming the patient’s contact with benzene. Repeated studies of peripheral blood, bone marrow puncture are important. There are no specific antidotes for benzene intoxication. Symptomatic treatment is performed only. Therefore, it is important to prevent the development of benzene intoxication in the workplace before the stage of deep irreversible disorders.
Ігнатьєв О.М., Мацегора Н.А., Ярмула К.А., Панюта О.І., Ямілова Т.М., Брянська Т.П., Шухтін В.В. Професійні отруєння ароматичними вуглеводнями. Режим доступу: http://herald.com.ua/2013/02_11/Ignatev.htm
Ткачишин В.С. Професійні хвороби. К.: Інформаційно-аналітичне агентство, 2011. С. 491-499.
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