Mechanical ventilation is controlled by volume or pressure during neurosurgery. Is there an advantage?
Keywords:protective lung ventilation technology, postoperative pulmonary complications, neurosurgical operations
Background. One of the main technologies of modern anesthesiology is mechanical ventilation (MV). At present, the protective technology of MV is widely recognized. The feasibi-lity of using this technology in the operating room, especially in patients with intact lungs, is not so obvious. Most of the scientific sources that cover this problem relate to patients with abdominal pathology, and less coverage remains in patients with neurosurgical pathology. However, patients who are operated on for neurosurgical pathology belong to the group of patients of high surgical risk, which forced us to conduct this study. The study was aimed to examine the feasibility of using protective MV during surgery in neurosurgical patients. Materials and methods. We examined 46 patients who were hospitalized in KNP 8 MKL in Lviv for spinal pathology and who underwent surgery for vertebroplasty with spondylodesis. Patients were divided into two groups: in the first group (34 patients), MV was performed by S-IPPV technology — synchronized intermittent positive pressure ventilation with volume control; and in the second group (12 patients), MV was performed by PCV technology — controlled ventilation pressure. Results. We retrospectively determined the incidence of post-
operative pulmonary complications (POPC) in patients of the first and second groups. Of the 34 patients of the first group, the signs of POPC were detected in 17 patients (50 %), and of 12 patients of the second group, POPC were detected in 4 patients (33.3 %). It should be noted that MV in patients of both groups did not differ in such parameters as respiratory rate, end-alveolar pressure, and the fraction of oxygen in the respiratory mixture. Conclusions. A relatively small number of patients clearly do not allow the conclusions to be drawn, but it should be noted that MV (especially volume-controlled) contributes to postoperative pulmonary complications in patients with intact lungs in the preoperative period. And pressure-controlled MV tends to reduce the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications in the postoperative period. Given that respiration rate, end-alveolar expiratory pressure and oxygen fraction in the respiratory mixture were comparable in patients of both groups, it can be assumed that the factor influencing the incidence of POPC is the mechanics of pulmonary ventilation.
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